Notes on Persuasion-to-Documented Argument Essay Project
This assignment actually has two major stages: TO DETAILS OF STAGES FOR E31. Persuasive essay (used as a draft for the final E3/argument version) based on the Classic Appeals OWL started as an Op-Ed: that is the less formal, personal persuasive appeal draft/version (c.750-1000wds) on the topic (based on a loop/exploration, brainstorming, mapping, etc.).
- an Op-Ed, but not a letter to editor...[ How to Write an Op-Ed | OpEds-w/evidence: OpEd--w/843wds | Sentencing by the Numbers | Skip the Annual Physical | Climate Change... | Immigration | OR search the web for "op-ed" and that will bring up lots of current ones to choose from | | [published sample-JT & Mirror Pond Op-Ed ]2. Argument essay stage formalizes the persuasion draft (op-ed) into a reasoned argument essay (1500-2000 wds.) with 5+documented sources for evidence -- at least 2 peer reviewed..
MORE DETAILS to help the process of developing this essay:
Persuasive Notes and Stages:
Notes on Persuasion: Dictionary.com defines to persuade as, "to induce to believe by appealing to reason or understanding; convince...." In many senses all writing is persuasive, and when readers finish a piece, it proves the writing was, indeed, successfully persuasive, at least, in keeping the reader engaged. Most every decision we make, large or small, involves persuasive elements as we choose what to do. Growing up, we likely wove elaborate appeals to stay up to watch some special TV show, get the keys to the car, etc., much like we hear from kids now. But maybe the most powerful and subtle persuasion that we contact everyday is advertising. In many varieties of print, on radio, TV, and more and more on websites, we are invited, kidded and intimidated into buying what the seller is selling. Advertising, whether we admire it or not, has much to teach us about what moves us to act.
Threat and Rescue: Advertising (also in politics, media, interrogation, everyday discussion...etc.) uses a "threat and rescue" model to present a situation and "solution" to it that usually benefits, primarily, the advertiser (or questioner). Any print, internet or TV commercial shows these features. Because there is an element of manipulation in any writing, the appeals writers use to persuade readers of a problem and solution should be based in the writer's genuine thought, values and perspective of the topic. [ Links to more specifics and Classical Appeals: Using Fear (threat) to Persuade (rescue) | 5min.Youtube on the Appeals |.
In these initial stages of developing this essay, the etymological profile of the concept, the loop/exploratory material and explanatory "narrative," will serve to inform and enlarge the writer's grounding, and so, their potential voice of authority. Persuasion may occur most productively when the writer conveys the confidence/authority that stems from an honest, personal understanding of the topic/situation.
Persuasive Stages: OP-ED will count as one early draft of the later argument version. After the op-ed that establishes the general issue and a few sources:Argumentative Stages: DOCUMENTED ARGUMENT-- Notes on Argument | youtube on Argument/persuasion
Stage 1—Do a loop exploration ( or other brain-storming writing) of the topic/issue to find a working/initial thesis/position—(if the topic changes, do fresh exploratory/brainstorming writing.).
Stage 2— Write an energetic narrative/descriptive persuasive appeal (an Op-Ed) (based on one of the classic appeals) that invites the reader to agree with the thesis. Outside sources for specific facts should be included, but only as part of the writing, not as formal parenthetical documentation. Factual information should be credited as part of signal phrases IN SENTENCES that introduce it. Save the location of the sources for the later WC, but
Stage 3— No formal bibliography/WC is needed at this point.
Stage 4--Research to find 5-8 solid sources (at least 2 peer reviewed) that are evidence for key points/ideas and start a Works Cited list (only sources actually credited IN paper) from Sample of MLA8 Ann.Bib . Annotations are basically 3-7 sentences that: 1)summarize the source, 2) describe its credibility, 3) indicate how you might use it, (or not). There may be more sources listed in Annotated Bib. than are part of Works Cited list, depending on which ones are credited/cited IN the paper itself.
- a more formal (specific) working Thesis Sentence (aka Main Claim) reflecting valid Deductive Reasoning with
- at least 3 reasons for that claim and
- 1-2 cites to authoritative evidence for each reason
- the primary counter arg./ opposing viewpointStage 6—Continue expanding op-ed into a working draft of this argument paper in 1500-2000 wds that
- follows the general format of a formal argument/position essay
- incorporates at least 5 sources, in MLA style, (at least 2 must be peer reviewed sources) from the annotated bibliography
- includes the main opposing view(s) and counters it (them) with reasoning/evidence i.e. (the counter-argument)
- includes the Works Cited list, i.e., the sources from the annotated list that are actually cited in the paper)Stage 7--- Finish via peer edit, proofing, polishing final draft and packet for turn-in (include op-ed +peer edit, arg.draft+peer edit and all developing notes and materials)--with TS underlined. presto.
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