Any grouping of words is probably either a clause or a phrase.

  • An independent clause grouping has a subject and a verb and makes sense by itself. [The fence fell over.]
  • A dependent clause has a subject and verb BUT does NOT make sense by itself. [That he was hoping to do.] ????
  • A phrase may not have a subject or a verb and only gives more information about something in a clause. [to the house.]???
  • These groupings can include more than one of each of those above....

These FLAG/trickster WORDS  help identify and signal possible sentence errors, because words (nouns and/or verbs!) which occur AFTER these pronouns are usually dependent on the main subject and main verb for meaning.....

PRONOUNS refer to or depend on other information for full meaning. These impersonal pronouns (not the personal pronouns such as "he. she, I, us," etc.)  signal information dependent on the core subject/verb.  These connecting and introductory words are also dependent on other words/ideas/actions, so cannot be main subjects and main verbs...

that signal a dependent clause or frag.
(Some) Connecting Words
that can signal a new clause
These words may also qualify as other parts of a sentence....
accordingly, however, furthermore, moreover, also, hence, still, because, so, next, as, and, however, nevertheless, besides, incidentally, certainly, indeed, nonetheless, therefore, but instead, consequently, now, finally, since, though. likewise, otherwise, undoubtedly, or, although, further, meanwhile....











Prepositions  place things or actions in a sentence and are usually in their own phrases, with out a main subject/verb and only make sense as part of a clause.  [beside the porch]
  • aboard
  • about
  • above
  • across
  • after
  • against
  • along
  • amid
  • among
  • anti
  • around
  • at
  • before
  • behind
  • below
  • beneath
  • beside
  • besides
  • between
  • beyond
  • by
  • down
  • during
  • except
  • excepting
  • excluding
  • following
  • for
  • from
  • in
  • inside
  • into
  • like
  • minus
  • near
  • off
  • on
  • onto
  • opposite
  • outside
  • of
  • over
  • past
  • per
  • through
  • to
  • toward(s)
  • under
  • underneath
  • unlike
  • until
  • up
  • upon
  • versus
  • via
  • with
  • within
  • without